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Macquarie did make the most of less than ideal circumstances.
His first task was to restore order after the Rum Rebellion of 1808 against the previous Governor.
The local Darug people, led by Pemulwuy, raided farms until Governor Lachlan Macquarie dispatched troops from the British Army 46th Regiment in 1816.
These troops patrolled the Hawkesbury Valley and ended the conflict by killing 14 Indigenous Australians in a raid on their campsite.
Captain Philip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of fresh water.
He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. Phillip described Sydney Cove as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".
Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.
Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement.Man-made attractions such as Sydney Tower, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, and the Sydney Opera House (which became a World Heritage Site in 2007 The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia.